Views 
(Visited 83 times, 1 visits today)
   PDF Download PDF Downloads: 99

 Open Access -   Download full article: 

Complex Decision Making by use of Ahp: Case Studies Based on Kakda Rolling Mills  

Shaikh Mohd. Javed 1, G. L. Gupta2 and  Ankit Goel1  

1Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, BIST, Bhopal, MP.

2Department of Mechanical Engineering, BIST, Bhopal, MP.



ABSTRACT: Rather than prescribing a “correct decision”, the AHP helps people to determine one solution. It is used throughout the world in a wide variety of decision situations, in fields such as government, business, industry, healthcare, and education. Kakda Rolling Mills Pvt. Ltd. Bhopal is a leading steel manufacturing company of Central India. It manufactures CR reinforcement steel bars, square bars, ingots etc. This paper presents application of AHP in employee selection at Kakda Rolling Mills Pvt. Ltd. Bhopal. There are two phases of the work. In phase one theoretical aspects of AHP are discussed, whereas phase two comprises the implementation of AHP on a firm, looking for efficient manpower. For doing so, the candidates appeared in interview are carefully examined on the anvil of five different criteria; knowledge, experience, competency, temperament and character and interest in job. For comparing candidates on these criteria, basically two types of techniques are used Interview and written test. After carefully examine their performances, marks are given to them against each criterion and after that these results are converted into priority values. Finally, results obtained from testing of candidate’s performances are tabulated in comparison chart made for the candidates and the candidate is suggested for which the total sum of priorities is maximum.  

KEYWORDS: Analytical Hierarchy Process; decision situations; employee selection; priority values

Copy the following to cite this article:

Javed S. M, Gupta G. L, Goel A. Complex Decision Making by use of Ahp: Case Studies Based on Kakda Rolling Mills. Ultra Engineer 2015;3(1)


Copy the following to cite this URL:

Javed S. M, Gupta G. L, Goel A. Complex Decision Making by use of Ahp: Case Studies Based on Kakda Rolling Mills. Ultra Engineer 2015;3(1). Available from: http://ultra-engineer.org/?p=254


Introduction

The analytic hierarchy process (ahp) is a structured technique to help people in deal with complex decisions rather than prescribing a “correct” decision. the ahp helps people to determine one from many. based on mathematic and human psychology, it was developed by thomas l. saaty in the 1970s and has been extensively studied and refined since then. the ahp provides a comprehensive and rational framework for formatting a problem, for representing and quantify its elements, for relating those elements to overall goals, and for evaluating alternative solution. it is used all over the world in a wide variety of decision situations, in fields such as government, business, industry, healthcare, and education etc.[1]

to solve our problem by ahp, first we decompose our decision problem into a hierarchy of more easy comprehended sub-problems, each of which can be studied separately. the elements of the hierarchy can relate to any aspect of the decision problem—tangible or intangible, carefully calculated or roughly estimated, well or poorly-understood—anything at all that applies to the decision at hand.

once the hierarchy is build up, the decision makers methodically evaluate its various elements, comparing them to one to another in pairs. in building the comparisons, the decision makers can use existing data about the elements, or they can use their intelligence about the elements’ relative meaning and importance. it is the essence of the ahp that human judgments, and not just the basic information, can be used in performing the evaluations.

the ahp translate these evaluations to numerical values that can be processed and compared over the whole range of the problem. a numerical weight or priority is derived for each element of the hierarchy, allowing dissimilar and often incommensurable elements to be compared to one another in a rational and consistent way. this capability discriminate the ahp from other decision making techniques.

in the final step of the process, numerical priorities are derived for each of the decision alternatives. since these numbers characterize the alternatives’ relative ability to achieve the decision goal, they allow a straight forward consideration of the various courses of action. [2].

analytic hierarchy process is most useful where panel of people are working on compound problems, especially those with high risk, involving human observations and judgments, whose resolutions have long-term effects. it has exclusive advantages where important elements of the decision are difficult to quantify or compare, or where communication among team members is delayed by their different specializations, terminologies, or perspectives. [4].

the applications of ahp to complex decision conditions have numbered in the thousands, and have produced wide-ranging results in problems involving planning, resource allocation, priority setting, and selection among alternatives.

Company Profile

Kakda rolling mills pvt. Ltd. Bhopal is established in 1996 to manufacture the rolled steel products viz reinforcement steel bars, square bars, ingots etc. The steel manufactured by firm is well accepted in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Maharashtra. The processes involved are TMT quenching system, quenching, self tempering, and atmospheric cooling.

Methodology

The first step use in the Analytic Hierarchy Process is to model the problem as a hierarchy. In doing this;  participants explore the aspects of the problem at levels from general to detailed, then expressed it in the multileveled way that the AHP requires.

Hierarchies defined

We have used a hierarchy to integrate large amounts of information into our understanding of the situation. As we build this information structure, we form a better and better picture of the problem as a whole.

AHP hierarchies explained

The hierarchy can be visualized as a diagram like the one below, with the goal at the top, the alternatives at the bottom, and the criteria filling up the middle. In such diagrams, each box is called a node. The boxes descending from any node are called its children. The node from which a child node descends is called its parent. Applying these definitions to the diagram below, the five criteria are children of the Goal, and the Goal is the parent of each of the five Criteria. Each Alternative is the child of each of the Criteria, and each Criterion is the parent of three Alternatives. [4]

Figure 1: Ahp Hierarchy Figure 1:  Ahp Hierarchy

 

Click here to View Figure

Establishment of priorities

Once the hierarchy has been constructed, we use AHP to establish priorities for all its nodes. In doing so, information is elicited from the participants and processed mathematically. This activity is somewhat complex, and the participants have many options on the road to completing it.

Priorities defined

Priorities are numbers associated with the nodes of the hierarchy.  If all the priorities in a group of nodes are equal, each member of the group has equal weight. The priority of any child node represents its contribution to the priority of its parent. As we move ahead through the Analytical Hierarchy Process, the priorities will change but will still add to 1.000 for each group of child nodes.

Pair wise comparisons

To perform judgments about the various elements in the hierarchy, we compare the elements two by two. When the pair wise comparisons are as numerous, specialized AHP software can help in making them quickly and efficiently.

For assigning numerical values to the compared results, we use a pair wise comparison scale which may be like the one shown below:

Table 1: Pairwise Comparison Scale Table 1: Pairwise Comparison Scale

 

Click here to View Table

We calculate the CONSISTENCY RATIO. The AHP software also provides a consistency ratio that expresses the internal consistency of the judgments that have been entered. The normal acceptance level for the consistency is that it should be less than 0.1. [4]

Comparing Alternatives

Then we evaluate alternatives against their covering criteria in any order they choose.

Make the decision

In the end, we arrange and total the priorities for each of the alternatives. Their grand total is 1.000. Each alternative has a priority corresponding to its “fit” to all the family’s judgments.

Case Study-I

Application of Ahp In Employee Selection Process

AHP can be successfully used in selecting the best employee for the firm. With the aid of AHP, we judge the performance of a candidate on the anvil of different criteria. Now, we will consider the case of a firm looking for a right candidate for a G.E.T post. (We will analyze the process for three candidates). Let us assume that only three candidates have appeared in the interview. We are naming them as A, B and C. We are choosing criteria for selection – knowledge, experience, competency, temperament & character and interest in job. [13]             

Basic Considerations

For selection of an employee, we will follow some basic considerations which are as follows:

All the candidates must confirm minimum fitness level lay down by the organization.

All the candidates must confirm the minimum qualification

Criteria lay down by the firm’s authority.

All candidates should confirm the minimum experience

Criteria lay down by firm’s authority.

Their maximum salary limitations will be as per firm’s rules and regulations.

Provision for bond.

Establish Priorities

Once the hierarchy has been constructed, the participants use AHP to establish priorities for all its nodes. In doing so, information is elicited from the participants and processed mathematically. This activity is somewhat complex, and the participants have many options on the road to completing it. This and the following sections describe a simple, straightforward example of establishing priorities.

Priorities Defined

Priorities are numbers associated with the nodes of the hierarchy. By definition, the priority of the Goal is 1.000. The priorities of the Criteria can vary in magnitude, but will always add up to 1.000. The priorities of the children of any Criterion can also vary but will always add up to 1.000, as will those of their own children, and so on down the hierarchy. In our example as it stands, the priorities within every group of child nodes are equal. In this situation, the priorities are called default priorities. As the analytic hierarchy process continues, the priorities will change from their default values to reflect our judgments. The priorities indicate the relative weights given to the items in a given group of nodes. Depending on the problem at hand, “weight” can refer to importance, or preference, or likelihood.

If all the priorities in a group of nodes are equal, each member of the group has equal weight. If one of the priorities is two times another, or three, (or whatever), that member has two, or three, (or whatever) times the weight of the other one. As we move ahead through the Analytical Hierarchy Process, the priorities will change but will still add to 1.000 for each group of child nodes.

Pair Wise Comparisons

To incorporate their judgments about the various elements in the hierarchy, we will compare the elements two by two. How they are compared will be shown later on. Right now, let’s see which items are compared. Our example will begin with the four Criteria in the second row of the hierarchy, though we could begin elsewhere if we wanted to. The Criteria will be compared as to how important they are to us, with respect to the Goal. Each pair of items in this row will be compared and it can be seen with the help of table.

The firm’s first pair wise comparison is Knowledge/ Experience. They need to decide which of these is more important in choosing the best employee for them all. This can be a difficult decision. On the one hand, “we can’t put an experience on education. Nothing is more important than the lack of basic knowledge. But in many cases experience dominates. So, we have to say which criterion is more important to us in reaching our goal, and how much more important it is (to us) than the other one. In making this judgment, we should remember that since the AHP is a flexible process, we can change their judgment later on.

Let’s say that we decide that in this case, Experience and Knowledge is of equal importance to us. In the same sense we will compare the other pairs. To find out the importance of a factor relative to other we may take help of the Pair wise comparison scale, which is given below

Table 02: Pair wise Comparison Scale Table 2: Pair wise Comparison Scale

 

Click here to View Table

Table 3: Pair wise Comparison Worksheet

Criteria More  Important Intensity
A B
Knowledge Experience Both 1
Knowledge Competency A 5
Knowledge Temperament and Character A 3
Knowledge Interest in job, A 4
Experience Competency Both 1
Experience Temperament and Character A 4
Experience Interest in job A 4
Competency Temperament & Character A 4
Competency Interest in job B 5
Temperament and Character Interest in job B 5

The next step is to convert these intensity values into priorities.

Prepare the problem matrix

For this, we need to enter all the criteria in a matrix form. As there are five criteria with which we are dealing with, the matrix will of order 5X5.

On the basis of knowledge following matrix is prepared:

Table 1a:

From/To K E C T & C I
K 1 1 5 3 4
E 1 1 1 4 4
C 1/5 1 1 4 5
T & C 1/3 1/4 1/4 1 5
I ¼ 1/4 1/5 1/5 1

Table 1b:

From/To K E C T & C I Total/5
K 60/167+ 2/7+ 100/149+ 15/61+ 4/19 1.772/5 0.3545
E 60/167+ 2/7+ 20/149+ 20/61+ 4/19 1.3176/5 0.263
C 12/167+ 2/7+ 20/149+ 20/61+ 5/19 1.0828/5 0.21656
T and C 20/167+ 1/14+ 5/149+ 5/61+ 5/19 0.5698/5 0.1139
I 15/167+ 1/14+ 4/149+ 1/61+ 1/19 0.2571/5 0.05142
Total 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.00

Finally, knowledge got 0.3545, experience obtained 0.263, competency got 0.21656, temperament and character got 0.1139 and interest in job obtained 0.05142 priority values.

Comparing alternatives

Knowledge

For the sake of comparison of knowledge of candidates both the written test and technical interviews were conducted. Both the written test and technical interview were of 25 marks each. Results obtained are

Table 1c:

CANDIDATE WRITTEN TEST TECHNICAL INTERVIEW TOTAL MARKS
A 15 20 35
B 17 19 36
C 21 18 39

On preparing pair wise worksheet

Table 1d:

Comparison B/W Marks  

Better

 

Marks are better by

 

Ratio

I II I II
A B 35 36 B 1 1.028
A C 35 39 C 4 1.114
B C 36 39 C 3 1.083

On comparing these values with pair wise comparison scale priority matrix is obtained and on solving priority matrix results obtained are:

Table 1e:

CANDIDATES PRIORITIES

(LOCAL)

PRIORITIES

(GLOBAL)

A 0.106 0.037577
B 0.2604 0.09231
C 0.633345 0.22452

Experience

Now we will compare all the candidates on the criteria of Experience. For this comparison we will focus on their résumés. On analyzing resumes we will find that candidate a has around 12 months of experience of a steel manufacturing company, B has3 months of experience of an automobile part manufacturing industry and candidate C is a fresher one. We can also notice that out of these candidates no one has previous experience of the same kind.

Summary of Experience

Table 4:a Summary of Experience of Candidates

Candidate Experience Industry
A 12 months Gear Industry
B 3 months Automobile Part Industry
C NIL NA

On the basis of their valid experience certificates and some questions asked to them regarding their experience, with the help of pair wise comparison scale we can assign the intensity values and priority matrix is obtained and values obtained are

Table 4b:

CANDIDATES PRIORITIES

(LOCAL)

PRIORITIES

(GLOBAL)

A 0.70708 0.1859
B 0.20141 0.05297
C 0.0915 0.0240

Competency

Competency and means ability to learn something new. Competency is very close term to the interest which makes it difficult to be evaluated. In order to judge the competency of candidate’s interviews were taken by the HR personnel.Following results are obtained for competency

Table 4c:

CANDIDATES PRIORITIES

(LOCAL)

PRIORITIES

(GLOBAL)

A 0.2014 0.043615
B 0.6806 0.147390
C 0.1179 0.025532

Temperament and Character:  Specifically this criteria tells about the behavior if the employee on the shop floor. Observations reveal that a person with a cool temperament level and nice character cooperates well with his boss, collogues and sub ordinates. In order to judge the temperament and character of candidates, interviews were taken by the HR personnel.

Table 4d:

CANDIDAES PROIRITIES

(LOCAL)

PROIRITIES

(GLOBAL)

A 0.6893 0.07851
B 0.2437 0.02775
C 0.0666 0.00758

Interest in job: Interviews were taken by the HR personnel and results obtained are as follows

Table 5e:

CANDIDATES PRIORITIES

(LOCAL)

PRIORITIES

(GLOBAL)

A 0.6486 0.03335
B 0.2946 0.015148
C 0.0567 0.00291

Comparison of candidates: comparative analysis chart is made and different priorities are obtained against each candidate and results obtained are

Table 6f:

CANDIDATES PRIORITIES

VALUES

PRIORITIES

NUMBER

A 0.6486 1
B 0.2946 2
C 0.0568 3

Based on the above analysis, Candidate A should be chosen for KAKDA ROLLING MILLS for the post of G.E.T.

Case Study-II

Application Of Ahp In Location Selection Process

Units concerning both manufacturing as well as the assembling of the products are on a very large scale affected by the decisions involving the location of the plant. Location of the plant itself becomes a very important factor concerning service facilities, as the plant location decisions are strategic and long-term in nature. AHP can be successfully used in selecting the best location selection for the firm. With the aid of AHP, we judge the performance of a location on the anvil of different criteria. Now, we will consider the case of KAKDA ROLLING MILLS looking for a new location to expand its production. (We will analyze the process for three locations). Let us assume that firm wants to select best location from three locations. We are naming them as A, B and C. We are choosing criteria for selection– price, distance, labor, wages.

Basic Considerations

Pairwise Comparisons

For selection of a location, we will follow some basic considerations which are as follows:All the locations must have  required space.All the locations must have transportation facility like road and rail.All the locations must have fulfill basic requirement like water, electricity, manpower etc.All the locations must have skilled and unskilled labor.All the locations must have all the government permissions.

Six pairs formed are Price/Distance, Price /Labor,  Price/Wages, Distance /Labor, Distance /Wages, Labor / Wages.

Vol-3No-1_COMP_Shai_tab5 Table 5a: Pair wise Comparison Scale

 

Click here to View Table

With the help of above scale, we have assigned intensity factors to different pair and then these intensity values are converted into priorities. Following steps are follower:

Prepare problem matrix.

Adding of all the column elements’.

Divide Column total to each element of the same column

Finding out row average

The row average values are the priorities of criteria w.r.t goal obtained i.e., for distance, price, labour, wages are 0.654, 0.198, 0.086, 0.062 respectively.

Comparing Alternatives

Choose the order of decreasing priority of the covering criteria. That means price first.

Price

For the sake of comparison of price of location some technical questionnaire were held to the managerial team of the firm. Technical questionnaire were of 25 marks. Summary of results obtained are

Table 5b:

 

LOCATIONS

TECHNICAL QUESTIONNIER TOTAL MARKS
A 15 15
B 17 17
C 21 21

As a result of calculations from matrix obtained led to  following priority values:

Table 5b:

LOCATIONS PRIORITIES VALUES PRIORITIES NUMBER
A 0.501 1
B 0.118 3
C 0.381 2

Distance

For distance following results were obtained.

Table 5c:

LOCATIONS PRIORITIES    VALUES PRIORITIES NUMBER
A 0.282 2
B 0.060 3
C 0.658 1

Labour

Availability of labour was taken into consideration. As a result of calculations from above matrix we will get following priority values:

Table 5d:

LOCATIONS PRIORITIES VALUES PRIORITIES NUMBER
A 0.179 2
B 0.685 1
C 0.136 3

Wages

Now we will compare all the locations on the criteria of Wages. For this comparison we will focus on the wages to be pay to Labor. On analyzing wages and with the help of pair wise comparison scale we can assign the intensity values the details of which is as follows :

From A = 1/3 = To B

From A = 1/2 =To C

From B = 4 = To C

On the basis of these values we will make priority matrix which is as follows:

From priority matrix following values of priority values were found out

Table 5e:

    LOCATIONS    PRIORITIES

     VALUES

      PRIORITIES

        NUMBER

A 0.156 3
B 0.620 1
C 0.224 2

Comparison of Locations

For comparison of all locations, a comparative analysis chart was made and different priorities obtained against each location were entered. The location, with maximum priority is selected.

Table 5f:

Criteria Price Distance Labor Wages Row Avg.
Price .1519 .1375 .2222 .2857 .1933
Distance .7595 .6878 .6667 .5000 .6535
Labor .0506 .0764 .0741 .1429 .0860
Wage .0380 .0983 .0370 0.0714 0.0612
Row Avg. 1.000

The row average values are the priorities of criteria with respect to goal.Final Calculations:

Location A score = 1993(.0512) + .6535(.2819) + .0860(.1790) +.0621(.1561)

Location B scores =  .1993(.1185) + .6535(.0598) + .0860(.6850) + .0612(.6196) =

Location C scores = .1993(.3803) + .6535(.6583) + .0860(.1360) + .0612(.2243) =  

Based on the above analysis, Location C should be chosen for KAKDA ROLLING MILLS to establish a new mill.

Result

Result For Case Study-1

On the basis of above comparative chart we can find that as for the candidate A the total sum of priorities is 0.378952 and it is Maximum, therefore we can recommend the candidate A for selection.

Result For Case Study-2

On the basis of above comparative chart we can find that as for the Location C the total sum of priorities is 0.5314 and it is Maximum, therefore we can recommend the Location C for the firm.

Conclusion

On the basis of above analytical discussion we can conclude that Analytical hierarchy Process can be successfully used in selecting right candidate for the job and the right location for set up a new plant. We can also implement the same process in case of employee evaluation, vendor selection, business forecasting, and etc. successfully. Industries should take necessary steps in this field and try to reduce their fuzziness in decision making to a minimum level.

References

  1.  Thomas L. Saaty “Response to Holder’s Comments on the Analytic Hierarchy Process” The Journal of the Operational Research Society, Vol. 42, No. 10 (Oct., 1991), pp. 909-914
  2. Saaty T.L.  The analytical hierarchy process, McGraw-hill, New York, Vol.32, No.09 (Sep02, 1980), pp126-128.
  3. Hwang, C.-L., and K. Yoon. 1981. Multiple Attribute Decision Making, Springer-Verlag, N.Y.
  4. R. D. Holder “Response to Holder’s Comments on the Analytic    Hierarchy Process: Response to the Response” The Journal of the Operational Research Society, Vol. 42, No. 10 (Oct., 1991), pp. 914-918.
  5. Smith, Bush and Schmidt. The Selection of Bridge Materials Utilizing the Analytical Hierarchy Process, Vol .29, 5 March 2003 pp238-239.
  6. www.ieeexplore.com/publication/at pdf_org analytical hierarchy process html.Retrieved on 28/11/09.
  7. books.google.co.in/books retrieved on 02/12/09.
  8. www.amazon.com/AHP Technology retrieved on 30/12/09.
  9. www.acceleam.com/publications/atPDF_08_org. Retrieved on 04/1/10.
  10. Kirkwood, C. “Strategic Decision Making – Multi objective Decision Analysis with Spreadsheets”, Duxbury Press, 1997, Belmont CA,
  11. Russell, Roberta S. and Taylor III, Bernard W. Operations Management 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2003.
  12. J.w.Ra. Chain wise paired comparison decision science, Vol. 30, pp 581-582, Oct, 1999.
  13. M. Mahajan, Industrial Engineering and Production Management,
  14. D.S KUMAR, GATE for Mechanical Engineers.
  15. www.careerplanner.com, retrieved on 27/02/2010, 03/03/10.

                                                     

(Visited 83 times, 1 visits today)

213 comments

  1. Ã…, vilken söt kofta – den där modellen är sÃ¥ fin! Och vilken häftig bok du har i dina gömmor – vilket kap!Tack för att du dlear med dig av mönstret!Hälsningar frÃ¥n Maja

  2. Ahaa, its good discussion about this article at this
    place at this webpage, I have read all that, so now me also commenting at
    this place.

  3. I wanted to spend a minute to thank you for this.

  4. Watch out for my upcoming post on the most common tourist scams… 2 days in Cairo? Wow, that’s not enough at all, although it might feel like far too much… But you will LOVE the museum, and the pyramids, if you can get out to them.

  5. That’s what we’ve all been waiting for! Great posting!

  6. As Charlie Sheen says, this article is “WINNING!”

  7. A person necessarily assist to make significantly posts I might state. That is the first time I frequented your website page and up to now? I amazed with the analysis you made to make this actual publish extraordinary. Excellent job!

  8. Why does this have to be the ONLY reliable source? Oh well, gj!

  9. That’s way the bestest answer so far!

  10. Thanks for the detailed description on Neutrinos. I know little about particles exist but u post adds more info. I think INO’s talk was there for long and on seeking a best place for conducting the research.

  11. Wow, renting is $7 now? I thought $5 was a bit pricey! I remember new Genesis games in the 90s being at least $60. But wow… $80-90 for an SNES game! Why was that? Did cartridges cost a lot to produce? With inflation, if we still paid 90s prices, a new game would be over $100 dollars.

  12. Multumesc mult pentru exercitiul de relaxare pe care mi l-ai trimis. In timpurile noastre de stimulare supra incarcata e nevoie sa reusim sa ne deconectam si sa invatam sa aducem linistea si pacea in sufletele noastre. Ceea ce e destul de dificil pt ca nu prea stim ce sa facem cu mintile noastre. Ne incarcam la maxim si nu reusim sa ne destindem . Cred ca daca ajungi sa te preocupe cu adevarat starea ta mentala si emotionala ajungi sa intelegi cum functionezi si doar asa poti repara ceva inauntrul tau. E vorba de autocunoastere si nu zice nimeni ca ar fi un lucru facil,dar cred ca este singurul mod de a aduce cu adevarat echilibrul in vietile noastre

  13. Shoot, so that’s that one supposes.

  14. A bit surprised it seems to simple and yet useful.

  15. Check that off the list of things I was confused about.

  16. Hello to every one, since I am truly keen of reading this weblog’s post
    to be updated daily. It contains fastidious stuff.

  17. Action requires knowledge, and now I can act!

  18. that it is wise to stay away from the angry man and don’t mimic his ways. How are we suppose to hdalne this problem and since we are made in God’s image and reading how angry He gets when we sin. I know that I really need help.I was married to a man for 331/2 yrs who was what you call a leaker . I was constantly punished for my opinion and my feelings. I think I’m more of the spewer . As a result I’ve damaged all my relationships. I just want to hide away from people so that they can’t hurt me and I can’t hurt them. Thank you and God Bless you for this study!TC Benson

  19. What’s it take to become a sublime expounder of prose like yourself?

  20. Along with everything that seems to be developing throughout this specific subject matter, your perspectives are generally rather refreshing. On the other hand, I appologize, because I do not give credence to your entire idea, all be it exciting none the less. It would seem to everybody that your remarks are not totally justified and in fact you are generally your self not really completely certain of your assertion. In any event I did enjoy reading through it.

  21. I had a Maltese and this breed is exceedingly intelligent and good with children, very friendly dogs, you fall in love with them immediately! If seeking a small breed please take care that a toddler does not realize that he/she may hurt them inadvertently. Shelter dogs that are mature (not puppies) make excellent children dogs…adopt if you can. There way too many homeless dogs that are full of love to give…References : Was this answer helpful?

  22. No se que tiene que ver la antigua ocupación de este muchacho y lo de las pistolas. Si usó una petrina de toda la vida… Creo que usted tiene cierta animadversión a ciertos colectivos profesionales que le nubla su habitual buen juicio…Dejo de decir paridas y me voy a leer el post de la furgo que me estoy temiendo lo peor…

  23. This is an article that makes you think “never thought of that!”

  24. 20: JJ,Don’t disagree, but not all gains are equal in this scenario (LT/ST). Also, what is the benefit to accelerating the realization transaction if you were to otherwise hold (gasp!) for many years absent the prosepctive rate change?

  25. Heckuva good job. I sure appreciate it.

  26. I believe avoiding processed foods is the first step to help lose weight. They can taste beneficial, but packaged foods have very little nutritional value, making you consume more to have enough power to get throughout the day. For anyone who is constantly taking in these foods, transitioning to whole grains and other complex carbohydrates will aid you to have more energy while feeding on less. Great blog post.

  27. That’s what we’ve all been waiting for! Great posting!

  28. Ho ho, who woulda thunk it, right?

  29. Hola Dani, gracias por el comentario.Yo también quiero tener un Nokia N900 en mis manos, pero mientras no descarto probar el Nokia N97 mini.Muy interesante lo de tu amigo, me encantaría poder tener una entrevista con él.SaludosDavid Serantes

  30. Thousand to 5 thousand. But if done in small increments with environmentalists like 350 group about reducing car emissions by 350 then money can be raised to rent one.Not scam real group IPCC backs up plus U.N.Accompany if you like.

  31. Yeah that’s what I’m talking about baby–nice work!

  32. Quanto à atitude da Folha:A meu ver, publicaram alguma coisa aparentemente favorável a Israel apenas para fingir neutralidade, assim como faz a Fox News.Prova?É mais que fato que o estrago já está feito. Tem paralelismo com a viagem do TERRORISTA Amorim a Israel. Puro jogo de cena hipócrita para fingir neutralidade que, evidentemente, não tem.

  33. Deadly accurate answer. You’ve hit the bullseye!

  34. Why they call them one-armed bandits…“Pennsylvania homeowners outside of Philadelphia will for the second year receive at least $200 in property-tax reductions from slot-machine gambling revenue, Gov. Rendell said yesterday.

  35. The houses on the website look amazing! I have to say that I don't know much about properties but I'm wishing you all the best and I can't wait to read all about your adventure!

  36. WedÅ‚ug mnie klawiaturka nie zachwyca. Znacznie lepsza jest GO Keyboard. Jest bardziej rozbudowana, ma dużo wiÄ™ksze możliwoÅ›ci personalizacji i lepiej, może to subiektywne odczucie, dziaÅ‚a „zbieranie” literek przy pomocy jeżdżenia palcem po ekranie.

  37. ok bene, direi che per il momento il Nano da 8 giga è il candidato alle primarie.tanto le foto le passerei comunque sul pc.e per la macchina fotografica, tanto sappiamo tutti quale sarà la mia prossima spesa

  38. Wow! Great to find a post knocking my socks off!

  39. An fascinating word can be designer scuttlebutt. I judge that you ought to indite statesman with this content, it mightiness not be a bias information but normally fill aren’t enough to be able to utter upon much topics. To the next. Cheers like your Khmer Karaoke Superstars » Somnangblogs.

  40. A few years ago I’d have to pay someone for this information.

  41. boathouse restaurants sound like fun – I didnot know central park had a lake! What does central park not have gosh the park sounds amazing.

  42. It’s great to read something that’s both enjoyable and provides pragmatisdc solutions.

  43. Keep it coming, writers, this is good stuff.

  44. Thinking like that is really amazing

  45. It’s a pleasure to find someone who can think so clearly

  46. Jan you do such a fantastic job, I didnt realise how many people were missing until Michael Murphy went missing on the 4th January 2012. Working on his page to try and get him home and all the kindness off his family and friends and from people that dont even know him. The search will still go on. Thank you for all your help and support you have given to help us with Michael xxx Keep up you excellent work xxxxx

  47. You’re a real deep thinker. Thanks for sharing.

  48. 18. januar 2009Jeg har forstået din næsegruse beundring, Mr. JE, omend jeg synes du sucker op, men det er ikke Lawman jeg er efter, og har i øvrigt aldrig været det.

  49. Caleb’s puzzle killed me. A big, fat DNF. Had fun with Gareth’s puzzle. Ump speech was my favorite. But I don’t understand no saint. Gareth? And agree thoroughly that the WSJ was exceptional. Thank you Derek Bowman! Happy New Year to all.

  50. Any entrpreneurial business would look for opportunities to make more money while delivering another sought after service.If it has worked means they got it right.

  51. Superbly illuminating data here, thanks!

  52. That’s a sharp way of thinking about it.

  53. Hola Panda-sama ^w^ quisiera saber como es mi nombre en japones la verdad esque yo amo japon y quiero aprender a hablar japones.(xothill villagra monge o xot)Arigatoo Panda-Sensei

  54. Het economische verantwoord “boeren” in Nederland is al lang niet meer mogelijk gezien allerlei maatregelen op het gebied van milieu en bestemmingsplannen. Als je als boer nog een paar cent wilt verdienen zul je hier weg moeten richting Polen, Denemarken, Canada of Rusland.

  55. That’s a smart answer to a tricky question

  56. Thought it wouldn’t to give it a shot. I was right.

  57. I love how people get preachy in their messages and profiles regarding lame messages, especially if it’s from someone that they don’t want to talk to, or to someone who doesn’t want to talk to them.And by “love”, I mean the complete opposite. And by people, I mean both dudes and women.It’s like they think that they’re the only person on the internet that this happens to. Women, just ignore the guys that are sending lame messages and block if they start becoming aggressive. Dudes, don’t stalk and harass women that didn’t respond to your messages. Yeesh.

  58. Excellent, ce concours…Mais Martine A fait une erreur : la monarche tombe aujourd’hui. Sa place est parmi les patriotes parisiens, qui explorent les Tuileries, après le départ du roi pour le refuge de l’Assemblée nationale. Guetter les représentants des gazettes l’éloigne un peu plus des citoyens.

  59. Hey There. I found your blog using msn. This is a very well written article. I’ll make sure to bookmark it and return to read more of your useful info. Thanks for the post. I’ll definitely comeback.

  60. astagafirullah apa aja penggomen2 nie. lisa is very responsible person smlm dia habiskan shooting and today nikah dats make she look tired. her face is tired face, dont assume negative yg dpt mdtgkan dosaWell-loved.

  61. Again, we are assuming Fat Bastard is not returning. We could be very wrong.As for his faith, I don’t like that, but I understand it, and I am not going to criticize it, as long as it does not mean privileges for the Catholic Church. What I HATE is “Venezuela es el mejor país del mundo”. Dude, if it’s so good, why change Chávez?

  62. Jajaja, joe Luis, me he estado poniendo al día en tu blog, cómo me has hecho reir!!!Parece que lo estás pasando bien, a costa de los chinitos ¿Cuándo vuelves a hacernos una visitilla a Occidente?Un besote

  63. That insight’s perfect for what I need. Thanks!

  64. you have a beautiful daughter. You must be very proud. Oh… your artwork & graduation invitation is also beautiful. I enjoy your blog and all you share!!!

  65. Thanks for the great info dog I owe you biggity.

  66. Ich habe zwar den die URL fuer den Feed Reader gefunden, ist der Blog auch bei Facebook ? Ich will gerne ueber Facebook auf dem laufenden bleiben.

  67. Well macadamia nuts, how about that.

  68. Slam dunkin like Shaquille O’Neal, if he wrote informative articles.

  69. This makes everything so completely painless.

  70. Very true! Makes a change to see someone spell it out like that. 🙂

  71. l’occident ne veut pas le bien pour les afghans , sinon ils n’auraient pas tué plus de 100 000 afghans en 10 ans . Les afghans sont peut être pas riches mais les gouvernements occidentaux sont assoiffés d’argent et surtout ce sont des criminels à grande échelle ( rappelons les 700 000 morts en Irak sous la main noire des américains )

  72. Back in school, I’m doing so much learning.

  73. The honesty of your posting is there for all to see

  74. There’s nothing like the relief of finding what you’re looking for.

  75. When I originally commented I clicked the -Notify me when new feedback are added- checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get four emails with the identical comment. Is there any approach you may take away me from that service? Thanks!

  76. Your post has moved the debate forward. Thanks for sharing!

  77. Felt so hopeless looking for answers to my questions…until now.

  78. I don’t know who you wrote this for but you helped a brother out.

  79. Very true! Makes a change to see someone spell it out like that. 🙂

  80. ughh love Repetto flats. I've toyed with the idea of investing in a pair, but I honestly don't wear flats often. But they're so goshdarn pretty! And your review is definitely making me want to bite the bullet and splurge on a pair hahaha. Good choice btw, those will go with just about anything.

  81. It is not my first time to go to see this web page, i am visiting this site dailly and take nice data from here all the time.

  82. That’s a knowing answer to a difficult question

  83. Je ne voudrais pas faire la copieuse, mais mon mien etait de briques aussi. Mais pê que les votres n’existaient déjà plus que dans des souvenirs de vétérans? arf!

  84. ben de burun estetiÄŸi yaptırmayı düşünüyorum. bendeki sorun sadece burun ucunda. burun ucu ameliyatı yapmak aha mı kolaydır. burun ucunu kaldırmak için ameliyat gerektirmeyen baÅŸka hangi yöntemler vardır? tÅŸkler…..

  85. What a joy to find someone else who thinks this way.

  86. How neat! Is it really this simple? You make it look easy.

  87. This only applies for normal cases, not for the modified version. The XspHttpServletResponse uses internally a buffer/block-mechanism for a better performance, and that’s why you can not write f.e. a JPEG file directly.It works for PDF’s, but if you use my example above and just do the same with the default OutputStream, it will fail. Browsers can not handle the generated image:var exCon = facesContext.getExternalContext();var response = exCon.getResponse();ch.hasselba.xpages.demo.JPEGGenerator.generate( response );Even if you write directly some bytes to the OutputStream this will not work.

  88. I’ll try to put this to good use immediately.

  89. Thanks for being on point and on target!

  90. At last, someone who comes to the heart of it all

  91. The voice of rationality! Good to hear from you.

  92. Of the panoply of website I’ve pored over this has the most veracity.

  93. Kristen Raquel Houston Hazel – Absolutely love the pictures!! They turned out so wonderful! Many thanks to you and Carol for the pictures and performing the ceremony. Love all the pictures of my dad dressed up.

  94. I have learn several good stuff here. Certainly value bookmarking for revisiting. I surprise how a lot attempt you set to make this type of magnificent informative site.

  95. Thanks for spending time on the computer (writing) so others don’t have to.

  96. Excellent blog here! Also your site loads up very fast!
    What web host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host?
    I wish my website loaded up as quickly as yours lol

  97. A small issue, the use of many different timezones on the live page makes it difficult to see when a live event takes place, a feature where you set a timezone in account settings, would solve this.Alternatively the design of the live page could be improved to easily show when a live takes place.Right now on the live page 6 different time zones are in use making the page rather confusing.

  98. Tu es superbe sur cette série de photo, décidément j’adore les photos en plein air !La robe est juste parfaite, je suis vraiment fan de ce style de robe pour l’été, tu peux tellement l’accessoiriser !! Tu as pris quelle taille ?

  99. Four score and seven minutes ago, I read a sweet article. Lol thanks

  100. I am not worried (yet) about Pau being out.This gives Bynum an opportunity to develop.Plus, I like resting Pau now to avoid aggravating a minor injury and missing him later in the season.I have faith in the real PJ.

  101. That’s a slick answer to a challenging question

  102. Oh man oh man!,, That looks sooo good. We discovered the cupcakes at The Contempo Cafe on our last visit in 2011, they are FANTABULOUS! Going in 2 months and will definitely have to try this baby out!

  103. Howdy! I could have sworn I’ve been to this blog before but after browsing through some of the post I realized it’s new to me. Anyways, I’m definitely glad I found it and I’ll be bookmarking and checking back frequently!

  104. I don’t even know what to say, this made things so much easier!

  105. The purchases I make are entirely based on these articles.

  106. It’s always a relief when someone with obvious expertise answers. Thanks!

  107. Hahahaha. I’m not too bright today. Great post!

  108. tv,brown berry show on choice fm on sundays at 2.15 pm,even high schools honors,and insde high school magazine you will just be fed up with the name of that great school Aquinas.We are everywhere even Akwaaba radio in the uk?we like to be in the media and we know how best to promote our school.to sum it up,Owass should learn to make their schools known instead of being jealous of other schools especially Aquinas as that will not be a panacea to solving your inferiority complex.Long live the Old toms,long live beb33,long live Aquinas,long live mother Ghana.

  109. Geoffrey Willis Author | Obama looks more and more like Jimmy Carter every day. Faltering economy, check. Isolating himself from experts, check. Deer in headlights look during crisis, check. Trying to appease a middle east that only understands force, check. Failing to recognize or timely react to a crisis, check. Being chased by a rabid rabbit, ok, there’s the difference.

  110. Very helpful. I have recently been to told to write on article websites rather than blogging. I do not see the reason and find blogging much less stressful and alot more fun. It is easier to leave a personal take on the blog. The real problem is lack of traffic to the blog.

  111. If you have a desire to learn how to earn from $ 500 per day and work only for yourself, then write to us at email: admin@makemoneyonline.universalxyzdom.xyz

  112. I see your page needs some fresh content. Writing manually takes a lot
    of time, but there is tool for this time consuming task, search in google; murgrabia’s tools

  113. Открылся новый магазин все по 50 рублей, например определенный товар стоит 5000 рублей или 7000 рублей то у нас вы можете найти его всего за 50 рублей: http://shop-50-rubley.xyz
    магазин ежедневно пополняется, к концу недели будет очень богатый ассортимент.

  114. Whatever he was hunting was never in any real danger With the way he treats that gun, I am amazed he and/or the camera operator is still

  115. Thanks for sharing, this is a fantastic blog article.Thanks Again. Really Great.

  116. Hi blogger, do you monetize your ultra-engineer.org ?

    There is easy method to earn decent money every month, just search on youtube : How to earn with wordai 4

  117. I see you don’t monetize your blog, don’t
    waste your traffic, you can earn additional cash every month because your
    content is high quality. If you want to know what is the best adsense alternative,
    type in google: murgrabia’s tools

  118. “I am so grateful for your blog article. Will read on…”

  119. “What would be your next topic next week on your blog.*:*’-“

  120. “So many consumers will be happy with your article writing. All The Best!”

  121. “Because the admin of this web site is working, no uncertainty very rapidly it will be famous, due to its quality contents.”

  122. “Hey There. I found your blog using msn. This is a really well written article. I will be sure to bookmark it and come back to read more of your useful information. Thanks for the post. I’ll certainly return.”

  123. I have noticed you don’t monetize your page, don’t waste your traffic, you can earn additional bucks every month because you’ve got high quality content.
    If you want to know how to make extra bucks, search for:
    best adsense alternative Wrastain’s tools

  124. Uhwefwi ufhweifhw wnfjweof vbdnvweui wiefweh 47665yt34y

  125. How are you doing that? I’d love to get my hue bulbs to match my TV

  126. “fantastic points altogether, you simply gained a emblem new reader. What might you recommend in regards to your submit that you made some days ago? Any positive?”

  127. “I am constantly browsing online for articles that can benefit me. Thanks!”

  128. “Superb blog! Do you have any recommendations for aspiring writers?”

  129. No matter how happy people may be with their life, stress may find its way in. Sometimes stress is so hard to control because people do not know how to go about fixing their stresses. In the following article, you are going to be given advice to help you deal with life’s stresses.

    acheter sildenafil 100mg actavis

  130. Writing doctoral dissertation is a prerequisite before a PhD degree conferred to you. It usually entails conducting some form of research. Dissertation writing is therefore not among the simplest form of writing you will come across. Dissertation writing process will normally begin by selecting of a topic or a concept. The topic should be on a relevant field and that which would lead to development of new knowledge in the field. While selecting a topic for dissertation writing, ensures that your topic is simple, realistic and attainable. After you have decided on a topic, you need to embark on writing a dissertation proposal. A dissertation proposal is a detailed work plan that provides specific details on how your dissertation project will be conducted. The proposal should contain; an introduction of the topic, the problem statement of your dissertation, objectives, research questions and hypothesis of your study and research methods you plan on using. A proposal in dissertation writing should also contain a literature review. A literature review is a detailed analysis of what other authors have said about your topic of study. The dissertation proposal should also include a work schedule and a budget plan for your dissertation project. After writing your proposal the next step is the collection and analysis of data. There are many approaches for collecting and analyzing data and the choice of these will dependent on the study. Then next is the actual dissertation writing. Dissertation papers should contain all those details included in the proposals. It should also encompass chapters that present the results and finding of the study. Dissertation writing should follow specific structure and style of formatting. This again will vary depending on your study type, institution or field of study. This process of dissertation writing consumes a lot of time and requires a lot of expertise and experience. These sometimes present a challenge to many students when it comes to dissertation writing. We are now providing dissertation writing services. We are offering dissertation papers for a variety of academic fields including; history, sciences, business, psychology and literature among many others. We have highly experienced writers who are also experts in dissertation writing. These dissertation writers are all PhD graduates who have years of practice in writing and have never disappointed when it comes to writing dissertation papers. Our writers will ensure that all the standards for your dissertation writing are adhered to. Though some standard requirement will vary from one dissertation papers to the other, there are some dissertation writing standard requirements that apply to all dissertation papers. One of them is the use of correct language, sentences, spelling and punctuations. Errors committed in such areas my completely alter what you intended to communicate in your dissertations. Another requirement is that your dissertation papers should be original and plagiarism free. To ensure that our papers remain 100 percent original and non-plagiarized we have instructed our writers to always start the writing process from scratch. We also scan all our papers using plagiarism checking software before we hand them over to our client. When you purchase our dissertation writing services, you receive papers that are guaranteed to satisfy your individual needs. This is because all our dissertation papers are custom written which ensures that we are able to adhere to our customers’ concerns and focus in meeting their expectations. Our dissertation writing services are also available at affordable prices.

  131. Say, you got a nice article.Really looking forward to read more. Fantastic.

  132. Thanks again for the article post.Much thanks again. Awesome.

  133. Writing a medical thesis or dissertation is a task done by almost all postgraduate and master’s medical students. Dissertation is derived from the Latin word disserto which means discuss. It is essential to write successful medical papers such as medicine essays and medical thesis papers. There are several reasons as to why students write medicine essays. One of the reasons is to promote enhancement of critical judgment, research skills as well as analytical skills. Moreover, medicine essay writing produce students with the ability to 4evaluate and analyze data critically.

    The initial step for writing medicine essays is to choose a topic. A writer should have at least three topics to choose from. The topic has to be interesting, feasible and relevant. It is essential to write quality medicine essay. Hence, students need to have analytical skills and perfect writing skills. The writing skills will enable them write outstanding essay papers that can be highly regarded by instructors and professors. Teachers often require a lot and expect a lot from their students in terms of medicine essay writing. for this reason, students find essay writing to be an extremely difficult task and hence resort to buying custom medicine essays.

    A custom medicine essay has to be written by professional writers who are qualified in the field of nursing. Moreover, the custom medicine essay has to be original and plagiarism free. This means that it has to be written from scratch by experts with many years experience. The many years experience should enable a writer to write any form of medical paper including medical thesis, medicine essay and even medicine research paper. Moreover, experience will enable a writer to write a medicine essay that can guarantee academic success.

    Students get custom medicine essays from custom writing company. It is essential to choose the best company so that one can get the best custom medicine essay. The best and the most reliable medicine essay writing company should have some unique characteristics such as affordability and the ability to provide original and superior quality medicine essays. The other quality is that the company has to hire expert writers who can write quality medicine essays and other types of medical papers. The essays should not only be quality but also plagiarism free and free of grammatical and spelling mistakes.

    A custom medicine essay has a similar structure to any other academic essay assignment. It has an introduction that introduces the topic and tells the reader what the essay is all about. The second section is the body that has many paragraphs supporting the main topic. Finally there is the conclusion that briefly summarizes what has been discussed in the body section of the essay. Students should choose reliable writing companies so that they can get quality custom papers on several fields such as technology, sociology and law in addition to medicine field.

    Our custom writing company is the best company that all clients should rely on when in need of any given type of medicine paper. We provide quality papers that not only plagiarism free but also original. Moreover, our custom papers are affordable and able to guarantee academic excellence at all times. All our medical papers are reliable and sure of satisfying clients at all times.

     

  134. Thanks for the blog.Really thank you! Really Great.

  135. Thank you ever so for you article.Thanks Again. Keep writing.

  136. I really liked your blog.Really thank you! Much obliged.

  137. I cannot thank you enough for the blog article.Really looking forward to read more. Will read on…

  138. Great, thanks for sharing this article post.Thanks Again. Want more.

  139. I cannot thank you enough for the article.Much thanks again.

  140. Very good article.Really thank you! Really Cool.

  141. Very informative article. Much obliged.

  142. Thank you for your blog post.Much thanks again. Much obliged.

  143. Thanks so much for the article.Really looking forward to read more. Want more.

  144. Thanks-a-mundo for the post. Fantastic.

  145. I think your website needs some fresh posts. Writing manually takes a lot
    of time, but there is tool for this time consuming task,
    search for: Boorfe’s tips unlimited content

  146. wow, awesome post.Thanks Again. Much obliged.

  147. I really enjoy the article post.

  148. I have checked your page and i have found some duplicate
    content, that’s why you don’t rank high in google’s search results, but there is a tool that can help you to create 100% unique articles, search for; Boorfe’s tips unlimited content

  149. A round of applause for your blog article.Much thanks again. Really Cool.

  1. Pingback: Google

  2. Pingback: Google

  3. Pingback: Website Design and Development Company

  4. Pingback: best sex toy for women

  5. Pingback: kona coffee

  6. Pingback: lion coffee

  7. Pingback: 2017 acura nsx armytrix exhaust

  8. Pingback: huge vibrator

  9. Pingback: Kegel review

  10. Pingback: blow job

  11. Pingback: best seller penis sleeve

  12. Pingback: top rated vibrators for women

  13. Pingback: bullet clit vibrator

  14. Pingback: opportunity

  15. Pingback: adidas nmd

  16. Pingback: rabbit vibrator reviews

  17. Pingback: finger vibrators

  18. Pingback: penis enlargement pump

  19. Pingback: Xvideo

  20. Pingback: what to do on anal sex

  21. Pingback: web hosting

  22. Pingback: coisas de bebe

  23. Pingback: butt plug

  24. Pingback: bedroom lingerie

  25. Pingback: anal for beginners

  26. Pingback: suction cup dildo base

  27. Pingback: dildo strapon

  28. Pingback: Minneapolis airport limo

  29. Pingback: 7” realistic vibrator

  30. Pingback: bunny vibrater

  31. Pingback: بتكوين

  32. Pingback: kona coffee

  33. Pingback: Minneapolis airport limousine

  34. Pingback: best vibrating ring

  35. Pingback: classic sex toy

  36. Pingback: seo marketing

  37. Pingback: mercedes c63s amg armytrix akrapovic exhaust

  38. Pingback: tamper evident tape

  39. Pingback: real life sex dolls

  40. Pingback: thrust rabbit vibrator

  41. Pingback: wild orchid vibrator

  42. Pingback: online virtual number for whatsapp veriy

  43. Pingback: debit card

  44. Pingback: favorite sex toys

  45. Pingback: oplata smieciowa warszawa

  46. Pingback: adult toy store

  47. Pingback: what's in the adam and eve welcome kit

  48. Pingback: adam n eve online

  49. Pingback: is adam and eve shipping discreet

  50. Pingback: adam and eve lingerie store

  51. Pingback: best adult toys for women

  52. Pingback: best egg vibrator

  53. Pingback: best cheap sex toys

  54. Pingback: best organic personal lubricant

  55. Pingback: how to use g spot vibrator

  56. Pingback: best place to buy dildos

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.